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Lynx - European tiger

The lynx is a predator living covertly and very secretly. He has directly incredibly developed sense of hearing and excellent eyesight. Acute hearing him around all tell from afar and sharp eyes catch the slightest movement.

The lynx is our largest predator. Adult Carpathian lynx male weighs on average 25 kg and females 19 kg. Feature is long more than one meter high and 60 cm. Coat color is very variable. Lynx has a thick, reddish yellow coat with červenohnědočernými spots, which are more or less pronounced. The length of his middle back stretches a dark belt. Carpathian lynx usually have large distinctive spots. In summer blotches pronounced than in winter. Brush on the ears and the wide end of the tail are black.

In addition to ear brushes hallmark feature his whiskers, which are shorter in the summer, but in winter very long, much in the manner of small mane. Typical is his short, as if severed tail, lean muscular body on high legs, and short, rounded, typical cobblestone. Overall operating feature highly aesthetic appearance and his appearance oozes agility and secret power. Track feature measure 8-10 cm and stride length 40-50 cm.

Some important internal organs is characteristic relatively much smaller than weaselly or canines. He explains this by empowering their prey without much physical effort, only a few quick jumps. In addition, his gait is regular and comfortable, while other carnivores are moving at a gallop or trot. Therefore, for example, it is not. Nor his heart was subjected to great stress.

The lynx inhabits forested regions of Eurasia from the Pyrenees to eastern Siberia, Korea, Central and Western Asia. It does not occur only on the open steppes and tundra. Bobcats most convenient Altitude 800-1 000 m, prefers mixed forests with representation beech, spruce, oak and fir. Often they live and spruce vegetation, but rarely in the band scrub. Feature you prefer choosing those locations where it rocky terrain provides plenty of hiding places in the form of rock crevices and caves.

In most of Europe was the constant persecution almost extinct. It survives in the residual areas in the Carpathian mountain system, the Balkans and Scandinavia. Slovak lynx have been successfully introduced into the Czech Republic (Sumava NP), Switzerland, Italy (NP Grand Paradiso), Austria, France, Germany (NP Harz, Bavarian Forest) and Slovenia. Best living conditions is a feature in the dense forests of medium high mountains. Les offers him plenty of hiding places, which is in open country much less. The condition is sufficient size of wooded areas with uprooted trees, Spinney and sunny glades. The type of forest does not feature specific demands.

In our areas, a feature found in woods in central, northern, northwestern and northeastern Slovak Republic, the Czech Republic is a feature only found in low numbers in the forests of northeastern Moravia (Beskydy, Javorníky, Vsetínské hills), and in southern and western Bohemia (Šumava, Blanský les , Trebon, Novohradské Mountains and adjacent areas).

The lynx is a very cautious animal that lives secretly and covertly, so his presence will learn rather just stop by and entrained debris prey. During the day asleep in his hiding place among the rocks on the ridge in a thicket or blowdown. Hides and the uprooting, hollow trees, caves or rock and earth pits. Very happy to bask and basking on the rocks. High in the trees rests. It becomes active at dusk and at night. The lynx is a master of the softest přikrádání and crawling, taking care not to spoil him nezavětřila.

Rys hunt spying and search or patiently waiting. Slowly prowls along the paths in its territory, and when it sees prey, trying to sneak her and take her a few up to 5 meters long jumps. When failure prey further pursuit. Per night will overcome a lot of kilometers, and at the same sites in his district returns usually only after a long time (14-30 days). This applies especially to old male, who usually have very large grounds.

Feature live solitary. Only in the mating season for some time brings together in pairs. Males at that time heard a special jerky voice, beginning in the higher tones and deep mňoukáním special ending, which sounds like barking. These vocalisations during mating are very loud and audible to a great distance. Other symptoms are grunting, spitting and snarling. Mate from February until the end of March. Female gestation lasts 70 to 74 days and the number of pups in one litter is 2 to 4 rysata young are born from late April until early June. Their eyes open up after two weeks. They are light to whitish colored and speckled. Breast milk suck 2-3 months. Juveniles in hunting Breaks mother only. The family stays together until the next February until October to join female male chicks who will drive. The cubs become sexually mature at the age of 21-30 months.

Droppings feature is cylindrical, about 2 cm thick and 4-5 cm long, often liquid consistency and a pungent odor. There is a lot of hair, but sometimes it can also find remnants of wild berries, for example. Blackberry seeds or pits from cherries.

Food feature in the individual parts of its relatively large area quite different, depending on what composition the fauna in the area. The main food feature in our countries is cloven-hoofed game, especially deer. Out of deer hunting especially fawns, does and occasionally even in rare cases, an adult deer. Boar hunts only occasionally, and then only babies and younger individuals. Adult boar attacked feature only in an emergency when he was too troubled by hunger, and such an attack is to feature very risky. V r. 1972 by the Slovak Řožňava attacked feature a large wild boar, which he, however, killed in a duel, and he left without a major injury. Quite often hunting trait in the High Tatras and chamois. In the Tatras probably hunt lynx and marmot, but that there are no concrete data. There are known cases where lynx chasing otters and other small carnivores.

Domestic animals harmful trait less often than other large carnivores like bear or wolf. In the Czech and Slovak lynx consume considerably less than hares in northern Europe and North America. This can be justified by the fact that in our Carpathians, which feature inhabits the hare at higher altitudes occurs only occasionally and reaches only a very small population densities, while hoofed game, which lives here much more, is a far richer and easier ulovitelný livelihoods.

The small rodents are in the growing season represented especially field voles. In winter eats small rodents feature a much lesser extent, because of the high snow cover is not open to him.

Based on the analysis in the stomachs of lynx were Slovak research also found the remains of foxes. It is generally known that the feature will not tolerate in his district foxes and cats and the dogs.
The birds make up only a small portion of food feature. Prey can become especially hazel grouse, capercaillie and black grouse. Insects eaten only on rare occasions, especially crickets and grasshoppers.

Lynx lives, and thus the hunt, solitary.
Its victims are most often bites to the neck and while it may happen that the bite her head. On the remains of prey are particularly significant traces its claws, the skin is torn, mostly on the back and neck. For larger prey lynx first licks the blood and then prefer eating the viscera of the head and meat from the shoulder.

In addition to the wolf and the bear does not feature in our countries natural enemies, even though the lynx cub, unless under the supervision of the mother, can catch even one of the smaller predators. Feature can become ill from rabies, but extend it as intensely as fox, because usually crawled into hiding and then die. Lynx affect other infectious diseases. Very often they attack parasitic worms, such as: trichina (Trichinella spiralis), who resides in the muscle fibers. Tapeworms Hydatigerata eniaeformis 12-60 cm long adult lives in the small intestine of the host. The larvae developed in the liver of rodents. Tapeworm Taenia hydatigena reaches a length of 2-3 milliamperes its intermediate host ungulates, hoofed animals and pets. During the research were detected in fewer and these parasitic worms: Uncinaria stenocephala, Mesocestoides lineatus, Dipylidium caninum, Capillaria lungs, Aelurostrongylus abstrunus, Toxa scaris leonina, Toxacara canis and Rominx aerophilus.

Lynx on the Slovak protected species of European importance, is included in the Red Book mammals Slovakia and refers to him Berne Convention, the Directive Council of the European Community, CITES, IUCN red list. The Czech Republic is recognized as specially protected, endangered species and by the Hunting Act in the Czech Republic and Slovakia are among the strictly protected wildlife year round, which is forbidden to hunt. Unfortunately, the biggest losses in stocks feature makes illegal shooting.

Source: (Our Nature)

Author: Pavol Turňa

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