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Waste throughout history

Wastes people faced since the beginning of its history. In every period, they are trying to find a way to waste further used or processed. While prehistoric people used the bones to build homes or production tools in ancient England first recycled glass. In the Middle Ages, then the excess garbage forced the city to a waste disposal center during the Industrial Revolution began again to sort waste and incinerated. The current trend is called upcycling, which converts waste into new materials or products.

Primeval waste was from natural materials, people have utilized the maximum

The waste produced by people already in prehistoric times, most of the material produced, however, came from natural substances that easily decompose in nature. Due to thrift prehistoric people managed to capitalize on most of all. After catching a mammoth addition to the meat and used the bones, tusks and skin. The material used for the production of homes, clothing, jewelry and various tools for the job. Systematic recycling then was waylaid by our ancestors archaeological findings during the Middle and Late Bronze Age, approximately three thousand years ago. Organized collection had been collected unwanted and damaged bronze objects that were intended for remelting and reuse.

Waste management drove in antiquity ingenious system

With more waste, people began to contend in ancient times, when the population concentrated in larger settlements, where he amassed more waste. In ancient Greece and Rome were a waste established cleaning services that often consisted of prisoners of war and slaves. At that time there was already a functioning sewage systems in cities and from time to time doing general cleaning. All waste is not exported into giant pits for the city. Formed as the first extensive landfill. Given the frequent production material was in ancient Rome glass, which has been the lack of recycling in this period concerned mainly glassware. This is confirmed by research specialist at Sheffield University, under which originated in ancient England new products by fusing ancient shards.

In the Middle Ages, the waste is accumulated, brought many diseases

Medieval society began to accumulate more waste. New materials are unable to quickly decompose and piled in the streets. Large amounts of garbage are attracted insects, birds or rodents, which gives rise to all sorts of diseases, including urban plague, cholera and leprosy. As a result of poor hygiene are a lot of people died. "People in the Middle Ages, their environment and especially water not particularly esteemed. Proof of this are well buried garbage, which you can find many cities, eg. In Prague, Plzen and Most, "says David Vandrovec (REMA). In addition to rubbish into middle life began to spread also a variety of chemicals that were used in the emerging craft workshops eg. In tanneries. Human health and has been threatened and poor quality water containing hazardous substances. After the plague reached many cities need to collect waste centers. For example, Hamburg began waste disposal already around 1600.

The Industrial Revolution changed the approach to waste began to sort and burn

With the industrial revolution came also the need to store waste in containers. For example, in Paris, it was released in March 1884 regulation that has defined, in which containers have people to throw rubbish. At the same time imposing an obligation to sort waste at municipal, shards of glass, ceramics and porcelain, and separately shelled mussels and oysters. For solid waste landfill began to form, to be built sewage drains. Landfill capacity was not infinite and already at the end of the 19th century, problems began to arise with the overcrowding. Many cities and started to implement a waste incineration. Waste incineration system introduced in London in 1870 and in 1892 in Brussels. The first incinerator built in the Czech Republic in Brno in 1905, in Prague, then the public in 1933.

In the 21st century there for material and energy recovery of waste

The early 21st century is characterized by the rapid development of society and technology, which is related to high consumption of materials and the related significant increase in waste. One of the fastest growing e-waste is produced quantity. According to statistics it from us annually produces more than 14 kg per person. In developed European countries, a growing proportion of WEEE up to three times faster than other waste. Given that the source of primary raw materials is gradually dwindling, people are now focusing their attention on material recovery. Therefore, developing new technologies focused mainly on the re-use of waste as a secondary raw material for further production.

The newest trend nowadays is called upcyklace which waste material is used for other products. From recycled e-waste is for example possible to produce original jewelry or home furnishings. "Out of low voltage wires can be made necklaces from films LDC monitors must earrings, multicolored cables again serve for the manufacture of clocks," explained David Vandrovec, Director of REMA umbrella project Trash Made , which is engaged in manufacturing jewelery and fashion and homewares from electrical and electronic equipment. "A collection of several pieces of designers created with respect for the original structure of the material. With the help of modern technology to give them a new shape, "said Vandrovec.

Source: tz, editorially modified

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